Therefore, we can conclude that the neutrinoless double beta decay offers a complementary probe to collider physics and, depending on choices for [v.sub.[sigma]1], it can offer the most restrictive bound on this

gauge boson mass.

In recent years, the Z' portal dark matter has attracted a lot of attention [27-64], where a dark matter candidate along with a new U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced and the dark matter particle communicates with the SM particles through the U(1)

gauge boson (Z' boson).

Once the temperature drops below the critical value, T ~ 170 GeV, the electroweak phase transition has occurred and the Higgs boson,

gauge bosons, and fermions (except neutrinos) acquire masses through the Higgs mechanism.

where [f.sub.V] is the new electroweak coupling parameter corresponding to the

gauge boson V, where V = [W.sup.+], Z, [gamma], and [f.sub.[gamma]] = (f - f')/2, [f.sub.Z] = (f cot [[theta].sub.W] + f' tan [[theta].sub.W])/2, [f.sub.W] = f/[square root of (2)] sin [[theta].sub.W], where [[theta].sub.W] is the weak mixing angle and [m.sub.V] is the mass of the

gauge boson.

The force field in binary lattice space is a

gauge boson force field, the force field in binary partition space is denoted as a hedge boson force field.

In this study, we focus on the analysis of [e.sup.+][e.sup.-] [right arrow] [nu][bar.[nu]]H production process in order to assess the projection of the first energy stage of the CLIC on the CP-conserving dimension-6 operators involving the Higgs and

gauge bosons ([W.sup.[+ or -]], [gamma], Z) defined by an SM EFT Lagrangian in the next section.

Since massless

gauge bosons live on the lightcone, a null boundary in Minkowski spacetime, upon performing the Wyler map, the

gauge bosons are confined to live on the Shilov boundary.

Obviously it has no direct

gauge boson interaction of any kind.

Two of these particles are gauginos, fermionic superpartners of the SM

gauge bosons. The bino, [??], in particular, is the partner of the U(1)

gauge boson, while the neutral wino, [??], is the partner of the SU(2)

gauge boson [W.sub.3].

Expanding around Higgs VEVH [right arrow] <H> + h (where h is the physical excitation of the Higgs field) we find the

gauge boson masses and couplings:

Some possibilities already considered in the literature include communication via (a) an abelian

gauge boson in the hidden sector mixing with the SM hypercharge

gauge boson (see, e.g., [22] and references therein) and (b) mixing between [phi] and the SM Higgs (h), commonly called the "Higgs-portal" scenario (see, e.g., [7] and references therein).

The main SM background processes are t[bar.t],

gauge boson pair production WW, WZ, ZZ, s-channel and t-channel single top, single W and single Z/[[gamma].sup.*], and QCD multijet events.

It is also important to note that the

gauge boson [B.sub.[mu]] and/or [W.sup.i.sub.[mu]] interactions terms are not present in the kinetic part of the Lagrangian (see (1)).

Apart from the gg fusion production, many BSM theories predict TeV-scale scalars that decay to diphotons can dominantly be produced by other means, namely, through the quark-quark (qq) fusion or through the

gauge boson fusions ([gamma][gamma], [gamma]Z, WW, and ZZ).

In the extended gauge sector, the B-L model contains an extra

gauge boson Z' and an additional heavy neutral Higgs boson H, and the theory predicts the existence of heavy neutrinos [[nu].sub.R].